Baines, Henry Wolfe, Anglican Bishop of Singapore and Wellington, born England, 7 February 1905, died Wellington New Zealand 29 November 1972. Educated at Repton, Oxford (Balliol), and at Cuddleston, he was an SCM Traveling Secretary (1927-1929), ordained deacon in 1930 and priest in 1931. He was chaplain at St John�s Cathedral in Hong Kong (1934-1938), Vicar of St Nicholas Radford, Coventry (1938-1941) and then Rector of Rugby. He married Elizabeth Bartlett in 1944 and in 1949 was consecrated Bishop of Singapore. During the Malayan Emergency Baines was noted for his ecumenical commitment and encouragement of local clergy. In 1960 he became Bishop of Wellington, New Zealand. He visited South Vietnam in 1971 and opposed rugby tours to South Africa under apartheid. Of imposing stature and gracious manner, he had a good voice and was known as a person of prayer as well as a listener.


Dyer, Samuel, LMS missionary to Malaya and inventor of Chinese metallic type, born Greenwich, England, 20 January 1804, died Macao 24 October 1843. After studying mathematics and law at Cambridge, in 1824 he joined the LMS and married Maria Tarn before leaving for Malaya in 1827. Their daughter Maria later married Hudson Taylor, founder of the China Inland Mission. In Penang, Dyer studied Hokkien and began statistically analysing Chinese characters before developing steel punches and copper matrices. His linguistic abilities, strategic planning and attention to detail resulted in quality fonts of importance in the history of Christian printing in China. The Dyers moved to Melaka in 1835 and returned to England in 1839. He was in Singapore in 1842 and Hong Kong in 1843. As well as articles in the Calcutta Christian Observer, Chinese Repository, and Periodical Miscellany, his publications included Vocabulary of the Hokkien Dialect, (Singapore, 1838).


Farquhar, John Nicol, Scottish missionary to India, born in Aberdeen, 6 April 1861, died Manchester, 17 July 1929. After apprenticeship to a draper and study at Aberdeen and Oxford he went to India in 1891 as a lay educational missionary for the LMS. He taught at Bhowanipur, Calcutta for 11 years. While on the staff of the YMCA in India (1902-1923) he wrote Gita and the Gospel (1903), The Crown of Hinduism (1913) and Modern Religious Movements in India (1915). Still regarded for his scholarship and his popularization of a missionary theology of religion based on a fulfillment model (Matthew 5:17), he was an excellent linguist with a detailed empathetic understanding of Hinduism. He returned to Britain for health reasons in 1923 and was professor of comparative religion at the University of Manchester until his death.


Francis Xavier, SJ., Saint, pioneer Basque missionary to Asia, born Castle Xavier, Navarre, Spain, 7 April 1506, died Shangchuan Dao Island, China, 3 December 1552. He studied at the University of Paris (MA, 1530) along with Ignatius Loyola. A founding member of the Society of Jesus, he was ordained priest in 1537. He was assigned to missions in the East and arrived in Goa in May 1541. He worked with children and the poor and baptized thousands from October 1542 to December 1544. He then visited Sri Lanka (1544-1545), Melaka and the Moluccas. In Japan in August 1549 he worked with state and religious leaders. In 1552 he returned to Goa and then Melaka preparing to go to China, but died in sight of his goal. Many of his letters survive and his catechisms. He was canonized in 1622 and proclaimed Patron of Missions, 14 December 1927.


Freytag, Walter missiologist, teacher and ecumenist, born Nieudietendorf, Thuringia, Germany, 1899, died 1959. Of Moravian background, he studied theology and philosophy at T�bingen, Marburg and Halle. Unable to become a missionary in China, in 1928 he became director of Deutsche Evangelische Missionshilfe. He taught missiology at Hamburg and Kiel until removed by the Nazis. A notable speaker and teacher, and known for being a good listener, he left few major writings. He traveled widely in India, New Guinea, China and America and attended all the meetings of the International Missionary Council from Jerusalem (1928) to Ghana (1957-1958). He strove to bring church and mission closer together, and to avoid polarization between ecumenical and evangelical groups. Sensitive to the changing realities of mission, he was a passionate supporter of the integration of the IMC with the WCC in 1961.


Groves, Anthony Norris, Plymouth Brethren founder and missionary, born Newton, Hampshire, England, 1 February 1795, died Bristol, 20 May 1853. Groves studied chemistry, learnt dentistry, and opened a surgery in Plymouth in 1814. After his conversion and marriage to his cousin, Mary Thompson, he moved to Exeter. He applied to the CMS as a missionary and took examinations at Trinity College Dublin before deciding ordination was unbiblical. After discussions with others who helped found the Brethren movement he received believer�s baptism in 1829 and sailed for St Petersburg enroute to Baghdad. Mary and their daughter died in 1831. In 1833 he relocated to India and published On the liberty of ministry in the Church of Christ (1834). He put the case for an 'open' conception of the Brethren, which symbolised one side of the controversy which exploded in Britain in the late 1840s and the break with the �exclusive� wing of the Brethren movement which took place before his return from India in 1852. His broad sympathies, advocacy of the �faith principle�, and simple lifestyle had a lasting impact.


Hall, Ronald Owen, Anglican bishop of Hong Kong, born Newcastle, England, 22 July 1895 died Oxford, 22 April 1975. He survived World War I, was awarded the Military Cross, studied at Brasenose Oxford and Cuddesdon and became active in the Student Christian Movement. He was ordained priest in 1921 and attended the WSCF conference in Beijing in 1922 where he formed close friendships with Chinese Christian leaders. He married that year and was in parish ministry in Newcastle (1926-1932) before being appointed bishop of Hong Kong (1932-1966). He initiated social welfare projects and was sympathetic to the Chinese revolution. His Art of the Missionary (1940) became a classic. He spent the war in China and was the first bishop to ordain a woman, Li Tim-oi, to the Anglican priesthood. In post-war Hong Kong he energetically built schools and churches. He retired in 1966.


Harris, William Wad�, prophet and evangelist, born Half-Graway, Cape Palamas, Liberia ca. 1860, died April 1929. He became a Methodist lay preacher and in 1888 married Rose Farr and joined the staff of the U.S. Episcopal mission. Tension with the bishop and collaboration in a failed pro-British plot led to dismissal and jail (1909-1910). An experience of the Angel Gabriel fired a vision of obedience to the Great Commission as a black Elijah. In the Ivory Coast Harris preached a radical rejection of fetishes and local spiritual powers and sent tens of thousands of converts crowding into Catholic and Protestant missions for instruction by bewildered missionaries. In the 1920s many of his converts were gathered into the Methodist church despite differences over polygamy. The �glise Harris was founded in 1931.


Hastings, James, Editor of Expository Times and Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, born Huntly, Scotland, 26 March 1852, died Aberdeen 15 October 1922. Educated at Aberdeen University and Free Church College, he was in Free Church and then United Free Church pastoral ministry in Kinneff (1884-1898), Dundee (1898-1901) and St Cyrus (1901-1911) while managing to edit a prodigious succession of encyclopedias as well as the Expository Times which he founded in 1889. His work of supporting faith by publicising the best scholarship of his day continued from his retirement to Aberdeen in 1911 until his death. His Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (Edinburgh, 1908-1926) has remained in print.


Niem�ller, Martin, German patriot, Nazi opponent, and ecumenical leader, born Lippstadt, 4 January 1892, died Wiesbaden, 5 March 1984. Son of a Westphalian Lutheran pastor, and a mother of Huguenot ancestry, Niem�ller was a decorated submarine commander in World War I and became a Protestant minister in 1924. In 1931 he was appointed pastor at Dahlem in Berlin. Briefly a supporter of Hitler, he was arrested in 1937 for anti-Nazi activities and his commitment to the Confessing Church. He shared in the Stuttgart �Declaration of Guilt� of 1945, and until 1956 was head of foreign relations of the Evangelical Church in Germany. He was president of the territorial church of Hesse and Nassau (1947-1964). Widely known for his personal courage and pacifist views, he was a member of the WCC central and executive committees (1948-1961) and president (1961-1968).


DEB: Donald M. Lewis, ed. The Blackwell Dictionary of Evangelical Biography 1730-1860. Oxford: Blackwell, 1995.

BDCM:Gerald H. Anderson, ed. Biographical Dictionary of Christian Missions. New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan, 1998.

DAC: John Chew, David Wu and Scott Sunquist, eds., Dictionary of Asian Christianity, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans (forthcoming).

DEM:Nicholas Lossky, et al, eds. Dictionary of the Ecumenical Movement. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans / Geneva: WCC, 1991.

DSCHT: Nigel M. de S. Cameron, ed. Dictionary of Scottish Church History and Theology. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1993.

ML: Gerald H. Anderson, et al, eds. Mission Legacies.Biographical Studies of Leaders of the Modern Missionary Movement, Maryknoll: Orbis, 1994.

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