Chalmers, James, LMS missionary to the Cook Islands and Papua New Guinea, born Ardrishaig, Argyllshire, 4 August 1841, killed Goaribari Island, Papua, 8 April 1901.

Chalmers responded to a call to mission in 1854 in the United Presbyterian Church, worked as a city missionary in Glasgow, studied under Henry Robert Reynolds at Cheshunt College (1862-1864) and did missionary training with the LMS at Farquhar House. He was ordained to the Congregational ministry in 1865 and sailed for the Cook Islands, reaching Rarotonga in 1867.

For 10 years he trained Pacific Island missionary teachers and developed local leadership. He joined the LMS New Guinea Mission in 1877, made links with village leaders, and staffed stations along the southern coast with Pacific Island and Papuan teachers. He opposed colonization and indentured labour, published vocabularies and ethnographic material, and laid an important base for later Melanesian anthropology.

Hitchen, John M. "Relations between Missiology and Anthropology Then and Now." Missiology 30, no. 4 (2002): 455-78.

Hitchen, John Mason. "Training "Tamate" Formation of the Nineteenth Century Missionary Worldview. The Case of James Chalmers." PhD, University of Aberdeen, 1984.

John Roxborogh